We are NOT authorized by Govt of India for Yellow Fever Vaccination

Saturday, March 23, 2013

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) in USA - Waning Immunity

A ProMED-mail post
Archive Number: 20130316.1590032
Date: Mon 4 Mar 2013
Source: Davis County (UT) Clipper [edited]

Public health officials have launched a media campaign to "Stop Whooping Cough" that urges adults to get vaccinated against pertussis before being around an infant. The number of whooping cough cases in Utah jumped 142 percent between 2011 and 2012, health officials say. Concerns, especially for infants younger than one-year old who cannot be vaccinated, were the driving force. The state went from 618 reported cases in 2011 to 1497 in 2012.

"By adults getting vaccinated, they are protecting themselves 1st," said Davis County Health Department epidemiologist Brian Hatch. "The other goal, perhaps more important, is to protect those who can't be vaccinated. During the 1st year of life, infants can't be [fully] vaccinated."

Davis County saw a 456 percent rise in whooping cough, or 139 cases over the year's time, 7 of them resulting in hospitalization, Hatch said.

Utah is experiencing a dramatic increase in the number of pertussis cases. Utah's incidence rate is over 4 times the national average. More than half of infant pertussis cases must be hospitalized, according to a state Health Department press release. 83 percent of those infants were infected by a parent or other close family member. 90 percent of all pertussis deaths occur in infants.

The campaign is a collaboration by the Utah State Health Department and 9 of the 12 local health departments, including Davis. "We're actively putting resources into the campaign," Hatch said. "We're actively doing everything we can to help control pertussis."

Whooping cough usually results in minor C but prolonged C illness in healthy adults, but it can be fatal in infants who are too young to be immunized against it.

"So it's important that the adults and older children around an infant be adequately immunized by receiving a quick, easy, and relatively painless Tdap vaccine, according to the Health Department press release.

The campaign's website, StopWhoopingCough.org, helps visitors find a vaccination location near them. Those who get their Tdap vaccine from a participating health department clinic or at a Harmon's grocery store pharmacy will receive a free infant "onsie" while supplies last.

Minnesota, Oregon
Date: Mon 11 Mar 2013
Source: Daily Rx [edited]

Vaccines save lives by preventing a person from getting a disease or dramatically lowering their risks for the disease. But vaccines are not perfect. Their protection can wear off. A recent study found more evidence that the vaccine for whooping cough is wearing off sooner than researchers expected.

The researchers in this study found that the risk of catching pertussis among fully vaccinated children in 2 states increased considerably over a 6 year period. The study, led by Sara Y. Tartof, PhD, MPH, of the CDC, aimed to understand how the risk of catching pertussis changed as time passed after children were vaccinated against it. The disease can be fatal to babies, especially those under 2 months old who have not received their 1st vaccine for it.

The researchers tracked children in Minnesota and Oregon who were born between 1998 and 2003 and had received all 5 shots for the DTaP. These shots start with an initial one at 2 months old, with 4 booster shots following throughout early childhood.

The study included 224 378 children from Minnesota and 179 011 children from Oregon. Both Minnesota and Oregon had very high numbers of pertussis cases in 2010 and 2012. The researchers reviewed 458 of the children in the Minnesota group and 89 of the children in the Oregon group for the full time period studied. Over that time, the number of pertussis cases that occurred rose each year.

During the 1st year of follow-up of the study, a rate of 15.6 out of 100 000 children contracted pertussis in Minnesota. By the 6th year of the study, that rate had risen to 138.4 out of 100 000 children.

In Oregon, the rate of pertussis in the 1st year was 6.2 out of 100 000 children, which rose to 24.4 out of 100 000 children by the 6th year of the study.

In Minnesota, a child was twice as likely in the 2nd year of the study as in the 1st year to contract pertussis. By the 6th year, a child was 9 times more likely to catch whooping cough than they were in the 1st year of the study.

In Oregon, a child was 30 percent more likely to catch pertussis in the 2nd year of the study than in the 1st year. By the 6th year, children were 4 times more likely to catch pertussis than they were in the 1st year.

"This rise is likely attributable in part to waning immunity from DTaP vaccines," the researchers wrote. Past studies in the last year have shown that the vaccine's effectiveness decreases over time more quickly than was expected.

This discovery of the decreasing effectiveness of the vaccine over time led the CDC's immunization policy group to recommend that pregnant women be vaccinated with the Tdap (the adult version of the DTaP) each time they are pregnant, even if they had the shot within the past 5 years.

The CDC group, called the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices, hopes the extra shot during pregnancy will offer a bit of extra protection to the baby during its 1st year of life. The vaccine is still effective in the couple of years after it is given, and babies who receive the vaccine on time will be protected by it from whooping cough. Babies are at the highest risk from dying from the disease.

The study was published 11 Mar 2013 in the journal Pediatrics. 

No comments:

Post a Comment