We are NOT authorized by Govt of India for Yellow Fever Vaccination

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Extreme Shortage of Yellow Fever Vaccine YF Vax in USA, Aug 2017 - CDC

15/08/2017
Announcement: Temporary Total Depletion of US Licensed Yellow Fever Vaccine Addressed by Availability of Stamaril Vaccine at Selected Clinics

Sanofi Pasteur, the manufacturer of the only yellow fever vaccine (YF-Vax) licensed in the United States, has announced that YF-Vax for civilian use is now totally unavailable from the manufacturer until mid-2018 because of delays in the production process. However, YF-VAX might be available at some clinics for several months, until remaining supplies at those sites are used up. Sanofi Pasteur applied and received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to make another yellow fever vaccine available in the United States under an investigational new drug (IND) program.*Manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur in France, this vaccine, Stamaril, is registered and distributed in more than 70 countries. It is comparable in safety and efficacy to YF-Vax.
In order to meet the requirements of the IND program, Sanofi Pasteur can provide Stamaril to only a limited number of clinics. Sanofi has identified sites throughout the United States to include in the program so patients can have continued access to yellow fever vaccine.
Travelers and health care providers can find locations that can administer Stamaril, and those clinics with remaining doses of YF-VAX, by visiting theyellow fever vaccination clinic search page. For information about which countries require yellow fever vaccination for entry and which countries the CDC recommends yellow fever vaccination, visit the CDC Travelers’ Health website (www.cdc.gov/travel).
For more information, contact Sanofi Pasteur at 1-800-VACCINE (1-800-822-2463).
*Although the name of the FDA program is "investigational new drug," Stamaril is not investigational or experimental. Stamaril has been used in European and other countries for decades but is not licensed in the United States. IND is the mechanism through which FDA gives approval for Stamaril to be imported.

More Information

Monday, August 14, 2017

How to avoid yellow fever, August 2017

Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. The disease is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. It infects humans, other primates and several species of mosquitoes. In cities, it is spread primarily by Aedes aegypti, a type of mosquito found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Aedes aegypti also transmits the viruses that cause dengue fever, West Nile fever, chikungunya, eastern equine encephalitis and Zika virus.
In areas where yellow fever is common and vaccination is uncommon, early diagnosis of cases and immunisation of large parts of the population is important to prevent outbreaks. Death occurs in up to half of those who get severe disease.

Avoid mosquito bites    

When you go outdoors, use oil of lemon eucalyptus on exposed skin. Wear proper clothing to avoid mosquito bites. When weather permits, wear long-sleeves, long pants and socks when outdoors. Mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, so spraying clothes with repellent containing Permethrin gives extra protection. Mosquito repellents containing Permethrin are not approved for application directly to skin. Be aware of peak mosquito hours. The peak biting time for many mosquito species is dusk to dawn. However, Aedes aegypti feeds during the daytime.

Get vaccinated if recommended              

Yellow fever vaccine is recommended for persons aged ≥ 9 months who are travelling to or living in areas at risk for yellow fever virus transmission in South America and Africa. Mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected primates (monkeys), and then can transmit the virus to other primates (human or non-human). People infected with yellow fever virus are infectious to mosquitoes (referred to as being ‘viraemic’) shortly before the onset of fever and up to 5 days after onset.

Symptoms

The majority of persons infected with yellow fever virus have no illness or only mild illness. In persons who develop symptoms, the incubation period is typically 3–6 days. The initial symptoms include sudden onset of fever, chills, severe headache, back pain, general body ache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and weakness. Most persons improve after the initial presentation. Roughly 15% of cases progress to develop a more severe form of the disease. The severe form is characterised by high fever, jaundice, bleeding and eventually shock and failure of multiple organs.

Treatment

No specific treatments have been found to benefit patients with yellow fever. Whenever possible, yellow fever patients should be hospitalised for supportive care and close observation. Treatment is symptomatic. Rest, fluids, and use of pain relievers and medication to reduce fever may relieve symptoms of aching and fever. Yellow fever patients should be protected from further mosquito exposure (staying indoors and/or under a mosquito net) for up to 5 days after the onset of fever.

Outcome

The majority of infected persons will be asymptomatic or have mild disease with complete recovery. In persons who become symptomatic but recover, weakness and fatigue may last several months. Those who recover from yellow fever generally have lasting immunity against subsequent infection.
The writer is a physician, public health specialist & a gerontologist.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

New Yellow Fever Virus Recombinant Protein for Diagnostic Testing Launched, August 2017

Aalto Bio Reagents have announced the availability of its first-to-market recombinant Yellow Fever virus (YFV) protein (code CA 6325) for diagnostic test manufacturers, vaccine developers and researchers globally. This His-tagged, recombinant protein is expressed in HEK293 cells and is derived from strain 17D. YFV, a potentially fatal mosquito-borne flavivirus, is prevalent in tropical and subtropical locations in South America and Africa.
YFV is transmitted to humans mainly by sylvatic mosquito vectors of the genera Haemagogus and Sabethes, but has also been known to be spread by the sinister Aedes aegypti mosquito which is responsible for the current Zika virus epidemic. In humans, the majority of YFV infections are asymptomatic; however approximately 15% of infected patients enter what is known as the toxic phase and this can lead to severe complications such as jaundice, multi-organ failure and even death.
Laboratory diagnosis is generally accomplished by means of serological testing for the detection of antibodies during the postviremic phase of the disease (i.e. from the 5th day since the onset of symptoms). YFV is difficult to diagnose, especially in the early stages, as cross-reaction with other flavivirus infections is common. There are no validated IgM ELISA kits commercially available at present and in order for YFV infection to be confirmed by serologically techniques, a differential diagnosis with other flavivirus infections must be carried out.
Philip Noone, CEO of Aalto Bio Reagents, said “Brazil is currently experiencing its largest YFV outbreak in decades. There is an urgent need for a specific and sensitive serological YFV assay in countries such as Brazil, where co-circulation with other flaviviruses is high. Our industry has an unrelenting requirement for access to the most scientifically proven raw materials, a broader range of flexible controls and faster diagnostics. With our Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue Triplex and now our Yellow Fever solution we are truly building a comprehensive tropical product listing to meet this need. We envisage that our YFV protein will provide the critical element to further diagnostic companies’ research and development of IgG and potentially IgM assays. We will continue to focus on the expansion of our tropical disease products with even more additions in 2017-18 to enable our customers to bring superior, best-in-class diagnostic products to market faster, and aid in the development of life-saving vaccines.”

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Polio in Syria, July 2017

What is the current situation?

Cases of vaccine-derived polio have been reported in Syria, according to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. Most cases have been reported in Mayadeen District, in Dayr az Zawr Province.
Vaccine-derived polio can occur in places with low vaccination rates and poor sanitation where oral polio vaccine is used. Oral polio vaccine contains a live, weakened version of the virus. In such circumstances, this weakened virus can circulate for an extended period of time and change into a form that can cause paralysis. This form of the vaccine is not used in the United States and most other developed countries.
CDC recommends that all travelers to Syria be fully vaccinated against polio. In addition, adults who have been fully vaccinated should receive a single lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine.

What is polio?

Polio is a disease caused by a virus that affects the nervous system. It is spread by person-to-person contact, mainly through exposure to the feces of an infected person. You could also get polio by drinking water or other drinks or eating raw or undercooked food that has been contaminated by the feces of an infected person.
Most people with polio do not feel sick. Some people have only minor symptoms, such as fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, stiffness in the neck and back, and pain in the arms and legs. Most people recover completely. In rare cases, polio infection causes permanent loss of muscle function in the arms or legs (usually the legs); if there is loss of function of the muscles used for breathing or an infection of the brain, death can occur.

What can travelers do to prevent polio?

  • Get the polio vaccine:
    • Ask your doctor or nurse to find out if you are up to date with your polio vaccination and whether you need a booster dose before traveling. Even if you were vaccinated as a child or have been sick with polio before, you may need a booster dose to make sure that you are protected. See individual destination pages for vaccine recommendation information.
    • Make sure children are vaccinated.
    • See the Polio Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) for more information.
  • Eat foods and drink beverages that are considered safe: Follow the Food and Water Safety tips to avoid eating or drinking things that could be contaminated with polio virus.
  • Practice hygiene and cleanliness:
    • Wash your hands often.
    • If soap and water aren’t available, clean your hands with hand sanitizer (containing at least 60% alcohol).
    • Don’t touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. If you need to touch your face, make sure your hands are clean.
    • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing.
    • Try to avoid close contact, such as kissing, hugging, or sharing eating utensils or cups, with people who are sick.

Traveler Information

Clinician Information

All travelers to any country should be up to date on routine vaccinations, including polio vaccine. CDC recommends a single lifetime IPV booster dose for travelers to certain countries. See the Vaccine section in Chapter 3, PoliomyelitisCDC Health Information for International Travel, for specific vaccination details.
Additional Information